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Power System Analysis and Design,. Fifth Edition. J. Duncan Glover, Mulukutla S. Sarma, and Thomas J. Overbye. Publisher, Global Engineering: Christopher. SYSTEM. ANALYSIS AND. DESIGN. Fifth Edition Systems analysis and design /Alan Dennis, Barbara Haley Wixom, Roberta M. Roth.–5th ed. business analysis benchmark - full chuntistsicentcha.gq; accessed February, .. (e.g., the layout of rooms, placement of plumbing fixtures and electrical outlets, and. Design · Drives · Fuzzy Control · Hydrolics · Machinery · Machines · Machines Drawing · Machines Lab · Measurement · Mems · Modern Control · Msd · Power.
For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www. The electric utility industry is probably the largest and most complex industry in the world. The electrical engineer who works in that industry will encounter challenging problems in designing future power systems to deliver increasing amounts of electrical energy in a safe, clean, and economical manner.
Independent power producers, increased competition in the generation sector, and open access for generators to the U. The need for investment in new transmission and transmission technologies, for further refinements in restructuring, and for training and education systems to replenish the workforce are discussed . In the s, regulated utilities generated and delivered power within a localized service area. The decade was marked by high load growth and modest price stability.
This stood in sharp contrast to the wild increases in the price of fuel oil, focus on energy conservation, and slow growth of the s. Utilities quickly put the brakes on generation expansion projects, switched to coal or other nonoil fuel sources, and significantly cut back on the expansion of their networks as load growth slowed to a crawl. During the s, the economy in many regions of the country began to rebound. The s also brought the emergence of independent power producers and the deregulation of the natural gas wholesale markets and pipelines.
These developments resulted in a significant increase in natural gas transmission into the northeastern United States and in the use of natural gas as the preferred fuel for new generating plants. And while prices for distribution and transmission of electricity remained regulated, unregulated energy commodity markets have developed in several regions. Today, the transmission system is being used to deliver power across states or entire regions. As market forces increasingly determine the location of generation sources, the transmission grid is being asked to play an even more important role in markets and the reliability of the system.
In areas where markets have been restructured, customers have begun to see significant benefits. In order to meet the challenges of the future, to continue to maintain the stable, reliable, and efficient system we have known for more than a century and to support the Copyright Cengage Learning. In areas that have restructured power markets, substantial benefits have been delivered to customers 3 in the form of lower prices, greater supplier choice, and environmental benefits, largely due to the development and operation of new, cleaner generation.
There is, however, a growing recognition that the delivery of the full value of restructuring to customers has been stalled by an inadequate transmission system that was not designed for the new demands being placed on it. Transmission investment has not kept up with load growth or generation investment in recent years, nor has it been sufficiently expanded to accommodate the advent of regional power markets see Figure 1. Graph used with permission from the Edison Electric Institute, All rights reserved Copyright Cengage Learning.
Because regions do not currently quantify the costs of constraints in the same way, it is difficult to make direct comparisons from congestion data between regions. However, the magnitude and upward trend of available congestion cost data indicates a significant and growing problem that is increasing costs to customers. The lack of transmission investment has led to a high and increasing in some areas level of congestion-related costs in many regions. In the northeastern United States, the bulk transmission system operates primarily at kV.
The majority of this system originally was constructed during the s and into the early s, and its substations, wires, towers, and poles are, on average, more than 40 years old.
While all utilities have maintenance plans in place for these systems, ever-increasing congestion levels in many areas are making it increasingly difficult to schedule circuit outages for routine upgrades.
The combination of aging infrastructure, increased congestion, and the lack of significant expansion in transmission capacity has led to the need to carefully prioritize maintenance and construction, which in turn led to the evolution of the science of asset management, which many utilities have adopted.
Asset management entails quantifying the risks of not doing work as a means to ensure that the highest priority work is performed. It has significantly helped the industry in maintaining reliability. As the assets continue to age, this combination of engineering, experience, and business risk will grow in importance to the industry.
If this is not done well, the impact on utilities in terms of reliability and asset replacement will be significant. And while asset management techniques will help in managing investment, the age issue undoubtedly will require substantial reinvestment at some point to replace the installed equipment at the end of its lifetime. Issues of land availability, concerns about property values, aesthetics, and other licensing concerns make siting new lines a difficult proposition in many areas of the United States.
New approaches to expansion will be required to improve the transmission networks of the future. Where new lines are the only answer, more underground solutions will be chosen. In some circumstances, superconducting cable will become a viable option. There are several companies, including National Grid, installing short superconducting lines to gain experience with this newly available technology and solve real problems.
While it is reasonable to expect this solution to become more prevalent, it is important to recognize that it is not inexpensive. Technology has an important role to play in utilizing existing lines and transmission corridors to increase capacity.
Lightweight, high-temperature overhead conductors are now becoming available for line upgrades without significant tower modifications. Monitoring systems for real-time ratings and better computer control schemes are providing improved information to control room operators to run the system at higher load levels.
The development and common use of static var compensators for voltage and reactive control, and the general use of new solid-state equipment to solve real problems are just around the corner and should add a new dimension to the traditional wires and transformers approach to addressing stability and short-term energy storage issues.
It is encouraging that the development of new and innovative solutions to existing problems continues.
In the future, innovation must take a leading role in developing solutions to transmission problems, and it will be important for the regulators to encourage the use of new techniques and technologies. Most of these new technologies have a higher cost than traditional solutions, which will place increasing pressure on capital investment. It will be important to ensure that appropriate cost recovery mechanisms are developed to address this issue.
There are literally hundreds of entities that own and operate transmission. Federal policymakers continue to encourage transmission owners across the nation to join RTOs. Broad regional markets require policies that facilitate and encourage active grid planning, management, and the construction of transmission upgrades both for reliability and economic needs.
A strong transmission infrastructure or network platform would allow greater fuel diversity, more stable and competitive energy prices, and the relaxation and perhaps ultimate removal of administrative mechanisms to mitigate market power. This would also allow for common asset management approaches to the transmission system.
The creation of independent transmission companies ITCs , i. ITCs recognize transmission as an enabler of competitive electricity markets. In its policy statement released in June , FERC reiterated its commitment to ITC formation to support improving the performance and efficiency of the grid.
An ideal industry structure would permit ITCs to own, operate, and manage transmission assets over a wide area. This would allow ITCs to access economies of scale in asset investment, planning, and operations to increase throughout and enhance reliability in the most cost-effective manner.
This structure would also avoid ownership fragmentation within a single market, which is a key obstacle to the introduction of performance-based rates that benefit customers by aligning the interests of transmission companies and customers in reducing congestion.
CASE STUDY the transmission sector under a single regulated for-profit entity is key to establishing an industry structure that recognizes the transmission system as a market enabler and provider of infrastructure to support effective competitive markets. Market administration would be contracted out to another potentially nonprofit entity while generators, other suppliers, demand response providers, and load serving entities LSEs would all compete and innovate in fully functioning markets, delivering stillincreased efficiency and more choices for customers.
However, the industry also operates within an environment governed by substantial regulatory controls. Therefore, policymakers also will have a significant role in helping to remove the obstacles to the delivery of the full benefits of industry restructuring to customers.
In order to ensure adequate transmission investment and the expansion of the system as appropriate, the following policy issues must be addressed:. Regional planning: Because the transmission system is an integrated network, planning for system needs should occur on a regional basis. Regional planning recognizes that transmission investment and the benefits transmission can deliver to customers are regional in nature rather than bounded by state or service area lines.
Meaningful regional planning processes also take into account the fact that transmission provides both reliability and economic benefits. Comprehensive planning processes provide for mechanisms to pursue regulated transmission solutions for reliability and economic needs in the event that the market fails to respond or is identified as unlikely to respond to these needs in a timely manner.
In areas where regional system planning processes have been implemented, such as New England and PJM, progress is being made towards identifying and building transmission projects that will address 7 regional needs and do so in a way that is cost effective for customers. Cost recovery and allocation: Comprehensive regional planning processes that identify needed transmission projects must be accompanied by cost recovery and allocation mechanisms that recognize the broad benefits of transmission and its role in supporting and enabling regional electricity markets.
Mechanisms that allocate the costs of transmission investment broadly view transmission as the regional market enabler it is and should be, provide greater certainty and reduce delays in cost recovery, and, thus, remove obstacles to provide further incentives for the owners and operators of transmission to make such investment. Certainty of rate recovery and state cooperation: It is critical that transmission owners are assured certain and adequate rate recovery under a regional planning process.
Independent administration of the planning processes will assure that transmission enhancements required for reliability and market efficiency do not unduly burden retail customers with additional costs.
FERC and the states must work together to provide for certainty in rate recovery from ultimate customers through federal and state jurisdictional rates.
Incentives to encourage transmission investment, independence, and consolidation: At a time when a significant increase in transmission investment is needed to ensure reliability, produce an adequate platform for competitive power markets and regional electricity commerce, and to promote fuel diversity and renewable sources of supply, incentives not only for investment but also for independence and consolidation of transmission are needed and warranted.
Incentives should be designed to promote transmission organizations that acknowledge the benefits to customers of varying degrees of transmission independence and reward that independence accordingly. The future transmission system must be able to meet the needs of customers reliably and support competitive markets that provide them with electricity efficiently. Failure to invest in the transmission system now will mean an increased likelihood of reduced reliability and higher costs to customers in the future.
As previously noted, this will lead to a required significant increase in capital spending. But another critical resource is beginning to become a concern to many in the industry, specifically the continued availability of qualified power system engineers. This puts the average age near 50, with many utilities still hiring just a few college graduates each year. Looking a few years ahead, at the same time when a significant number of power engineers will be considering retirement, the need for them will be significantly increasing.
The supply of power engineers will have to be great enough to replace the large numbers of those retiring in addition to the number required to respond to the anticipated increase in transmission capital spending. Today, the number of universities offering power engineering programs has decreased.
Some universities, such as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, no longer have separate power system engineering departments. According to the IEEE, the number of power system engineering graduates has dropped from approximately 2, per year in the s to today. Turning this situation around will require a longterm effort by many groups working together, including utilities, consultants, manufacturers, universities, and groups such as the IEEE Power Engineering Society PES.
Part of the challenge is that utilities are competing for engineering students against other industries, such as telecommunications or computer software development, that are perceived as being more glamorous or more hip than the power industry and have no problem attracting large numbers of new engineers. For the most part, the power industry has not done a great job of selling itself. Too often, headlines focus on negatives such as rate increases, power outages, and community relations issues related to a proposed new generation plant or transmission line.
To a large extent, the industry also has become a victim of its own success by delivering electricity so reliably that the public generally takes it for granted, which makes the good news more difficult to tell. PES can play an important role in this. On a related note, as the industry continues to develop new, innovative technologies, they should be documented and showcased to help generate excitement about the industry among college-age engineers and help attract them to power system engineering.
The utilities, consultants, and manufacturers must strengthen their relationships with strong technical institutions to continue increasing support for electrical engineering departments to offer power systems classes at the undergraduate level.
In some cases, this may even require underwriting a class. Experience at National Grid has shown that when support for a class is guaranteed, the number of students who sign up typically is greater than expected.
The industry needs to further support these Copyright Cengage Learning. CASE STUDY efforts by offering presentations to students on the complexity of the power system, real problems that need to be solved, and the impact that a reliable, cost-efficient power system has on society. Sponsoring more student internships and research projects will introduce additional students and faculty to the unique challenges of the industry.
In the future, the industry will have to hire more nonpower engineers and train them in the specifics of power system engineering or rely on hiring from overseas. Finally, the industry needs to cultivate relationships with universities to assist in developing professors who are knowledgeable about the industry. This can take the form of research work, consulting, and teaching custom programs for the industry. National Grid has developed relationships with several northeastern U.
The courses can be offered online, at the university, or on site at the utility. This problem will only get worse if industry leaders do not work together to resolve it. It is an ever-changing system both in physical terms and how it is operated and regulated. These changes must be recognized and actions developed accordingly.
Since the industry is made up of many organizations that share the system, it can be difficult to agree on action plans. There are a few points on which all can agree. The first is that the transmission assets continue to get older and investment is not keeping up with needs when looking over a future horizon. The issue will only get worse as more lines and substations exceed the year age mark.
Technology development and application undoubtedly will increase as engineers look for new and creative ways to combat the congestion issues and increased 9 electrical demand—and new overhead transmission lines will be only one of the solutions considered. The second is that it will be important for further refinement in the restructuring of the industry to occur. The changes made since the late s have delivered benefits to customers in the Northeast in the form of lower energy costs and access to greater competitive electric markets.
Regulators and policymakers should recognize that independently owned, operated, managed, and widely planned networks are important to solving future problems most efficiently. Having a reliable, regional, uncongested transmission system will enable a healthy competitive marketplace.
Over the last year, there has been significant discussion of the issue, but it will take a considerable effort by many to guide the future workforce into a position of appreciating the electricity industry and desiring to enter it and to ensure that the training and education systems are in place to develop the new engineers who will be required to upgrade and maintain the electric power system. The industry has many challenges, but it also has great resources and a good reputation.
Through the efforts of many and by working together through organizations such as PES, the industry can move forward to the benefit of the public and the United States as a whole.
Transmission; Mary Ellen Paravalos, director, regulatory policy, U. Transmission; Joseph Rossignoli, principal analyst, regulatory policy, U. Delivering the promise of industry restructuring to Copyright Cengage Learning.
Energy, Aug. Various planned and proposed systems to dramatically increase transmission capacity are known as super, or mega grids. The promised benefits include enabling the renewable energy industry to sell electricity to distant markets, the ability to increase usage of intermittent energy sources by balancing them across vast geological regions, and the removal of congestion that prevents electricity markets from flourishing.
Local opposition to siting new lines and the significant cost of these projects are major obstacles to super grids. Demand response is a grid management technique where retail or wholesale customers are requested either electronically or manually to reduce their load. Currently, transmission grid operators use demand response to request load reduction from major energy users such as industrial plants.
Despite the novel institutional arrangements and network designs of the electrical grid, its power delivery infrastructures suffer aging across the developed world.
Contributing factors to the current state of the electric grid and its consequences include:. Thirty-seven states plus the District of Columbia took some action to modernize electric grids in the first quarter of , according to the North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center.
The states did so to make electricity systems "more resilient and interactive". The most common actions that states took were "advanced metering infrastructure deployment" 19 states did this , smart grid deployment and "time-varying rates for residential customers". Legislatively, in the first quarter of the year 82 relevant bills were introduced in different parts of the United States.
At the close of the quarter, most of the bills remained pending. For example, legislators in Hawaii introduced a bill that would create an energy storage tax credit. In California, the state Senate had a bill that would "create a new energy storage rebate program". These recommendations are to streamline the federal permit process for advanced energy projects; encourage grid planners to consider alternatives to investment in transmission; allow energy storage and energy efficiency to compete with additional energy generation; allow large customers to choose their own sources of electricity; and allow utilities and consumers to benefit from cloud computing software.
With everything interconnected, and open competition occurring in a free market economy , it starts to make sense to allow and even encourage distributed generation DG.
Smaller generators, usually not owned by the utility, can be brought on-line to help supply the need for power. The smaller generation facility might be a home-owner with excess power from their solar panel or wind turbine. It might be a small office with a diesel generator. These resources can be brought on-line either at the utility's behest, or by owner of the generation in an effort to sell electricity.
Many small generators are allowed to sell electricity back to the grid for the same price they would pay to download it. As the 21st century progresses, the electric utility industry seeks to take advantage of novel approaches to meet growing energy demand. Utilities are under pressure to evolve their classic topologies to accommodate distributed generation. As generation becomes more common from rooftop solar and wind generators, the differences between distribution and transmission grids will continue to blur.
In July the CEO of Mercedes-Benz said that the energy industry needs to work better with companies from other industries to form a "total ecosystem", to integrate central and distributed energy resources DER to give customers what they want. The electrical grid was originally constructed so that electricity would flow from power providers to consumers. However, with the introduction of DER, power needs to flow both ways on the electric grid, because customers may have power sources such as solar panels.
The smart grid would be an enhancement of the 20th century electrical grid, using two-way communications and distributed so-called intelligent devices. Two-way flows of electricity and information could improve the delivery network. The infrastructure system is the energy, information, and communication infrastructure underlying of the smart grid that supports:. A smart grid would allow the power industry to observe and control parts of the system at higher resolution in time and space.
It would allow management of the grid on all time scales from high-frequency switching devices on a microsecond scale, to wind and solar output variations on a minute scale, to the future effects of the carbon emissions generated by power production on a decade scale. The management system is the subsystem in smart grid that provides advanced management and control services.
Most of the existing works aim to improve energy efficiency, demand profile, utility, cost, and emission, based on the infrastructure by using optimization , machine learning , and game theory. Within the advanced infrastructure framework of smart grid, more and more new management services and applications are expected to emerge and eventually revolutionize consumers' daily lives.
The protection system of a smart grid provides grid reliability analysis, failure protection, and security and privacy protection services. While the additional communication infrastructure of a smart grid provides additional protective and security mechanisms, it also presents a risk of external attack and internal failures.
In a report on cyber security of smart grid technology first produced in , and later updated in , the US National Institute of Standards and Technology pointed out that the ability to collect more data about energy use from customer smart meters also raises major privacy concerns, since the information stored at the meter, which is potentially vulnerable to data breaches , can be mined for personal details about customers.
In the U. The objective is to enable utilities to better predict their needs, and in some cases involve consumers in a time-of-use tariff. Funds have also been allocated to develop more robust energy control technologies.
As there is some resistance in the electric utility sector to the concepts of distributed generation with various renewable energy sources and microscale cogen units, several authors have warned that mass-scale grid defection is possible because consumers can produce electricity using off grid systems primarily made up of solar photovoltaic technology.
The Rocky Mountain Institute has proposed that there may be widescale grid defection. Due to the enormous capital outlays, utilities were a vertically integrated business throughout the 20th century owning the power generation , the transmission lines while also managing the bills commercialization.
Presently, technological progress has enabled individuals and groups to take on the functions that used to be the sole domain of the utility. Adding to the shift is the impact of aging infrastructure on reliability, security and performance factors. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers.
For other uses, see Grid disambiguation. For the board game, see Power Grid. Most of the wide area synchronous grids of Europe are members of the European Transmission System Operators association. The Continental U. High-voltage direct current interconnections in western Europe - red are existing links, green are under construction, and blue are proposed. Unusual for a national grid, different regions of Japan's electricity transmission network run at completely different frequencies.
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Black start. Wide area synchronous grid. See also: Smart Grid. Electrical Power Transmission: Background and Policy Issues. The Capital. Net, Government Series. The missing link in globalization". Archived from the original on Retrieved Distributed Generation: The Power Paradigm for the New Millennium. Royal Society of Edinburgh. Archived PDF from the original on 4 March North Northumberland Online.
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See "Operation of Power Systems" link for title page and table of contents. Mar 7, Demand response can be achieved at the wholesale level with major energy users such as industrial plants curtailing power use and receiving payment for participating.
Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York. Daily Energy Insider. Solar Builder Magazine. Fang, S. Misra, G. Xue, and D. Yang; doi: Electrical Engineer A: Electric Power Systems.
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