Aug 27, This is an attempted scientific study of illuminated individuals. Bucke provides three dozen very consistent examples of 'cosmic consciousness. Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind [Richard Maurice Bucke] on chuntistsicentcha.gq *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Don't have a Kindle? Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind by Richard Maurice Bucke; 26 editions; Cover of: Cosmic Consciousness | Richard Maurice Bucke DAISY for print-disabled Download ebook for print-disabled ( DAISY).
|Language:||English, Spanish, French|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Cosmic Consciousness, by Richard Maurice Bucke, , at chuntistsicentcha.gq Cosmic Consciousness. A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind. By. Cosmic Consciousness. A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind. Edited by DR. Ric HARD MAU Rice Buck E. Werily, verily I say unto thee, except a man be . Cosmic Consciousness by Richard Maurice Bucke can be read for free at free online public library that includes free eBook downloads and free audio books.
Hosea died within the year 4 of blood poisoning, and in Bucke and Allen Grosh were lost in a snowstorm. They went 5 days and 4 nights without food or fire until they arrived at a small mining camp. Grosh died of exhaustion and exposure, while Bucke recovered, despite losing one foot and part of the other to severe frostbite Western Archives, , p.
The set of experiences of suffering could shake up most people, but found in that young man an already expanded consciousness, above average, and the young man's response was to make recycling decisions. It seems that he decided to return to a life centered on the study of human morality and the care of people.
By speculation, one might venture to say that the snow survival effort, coupled with the sensitivity developed in childhood and other positive traits of his personality, helped him to resume humanitarian and spiritual tendencies. The present hypothesis in this chapter sheds light on the possibility that these earlier circumstances constituted the main propitiating basis for the course that led Bucke to meet the experience of cosmoconsciousness in We can also speculate whether there were moments of spiritual elevation and significant expansions of consciousness regarding existential values accompanying the survival effort in the snow.
Bucke returned to Canada in Beginning adulthood, he inherited the small property of his deceased mother and this money allowed to him to spend some years studying. Bucke entered McGill University's medical school in Montreal, where he graduated with honors in , at age 25, with the thesis entitled The Correlation of Vital and Physical Forces.
He returned to Canada in and married Jessie Maria Gurd in He settled down to practice medicine in Sarnia, Ontario, for the next ten years. Bucke and his wife had eight children. Bucke was appointed Medical Superintendent at the Provincial Asylum for the Insane, the new mental hospital in Hamilton in He was transferred to the Asylum for the Insane of the Ontario Hospital in London where he remained in the position of superintendent for twenty-five years until his death in He was very successful in the profession he chose.
He pioneered several practices, published several articles, and presented many lectures in associations of medicine and psychology. Bucke gave the opening lecture of the year at McGill University upon request of the faculty of medicine in He became chairman of the Psychological Section of the British Medical Association in and was also elected president of the American Medical- Psychological Association in The professional trajectory already demonstrated that his personality had a great capacity to offer contributions and it was based on Bucke's deepened humanitarian sense.
His development in medicine advanced in parallel with the development of research on personal experience with the phenomenon of cosmoconsciousness that occurred in and continued to materialize the book that he was writing step by step. It seems that there was a potentiating effect of Whitman's expansions of consciousness, conveyed by poetry, acting on the psychic phenomena manifested by Bucke and on his own written material.
Bucke was very sensitive to the contents and meanings of those readings. The succession between reading and the experience of cosmoconsciousness that occurred in draws attention to this hypothesis. Again, Bucke's scientific and analytical sense prevailed, translating this friendship into the biography with the title Whitman published in and becoming his literary executor to take care of his posthumous publications. Before that, Bucke had already advanced in depth on other aspects of human consciousness in the book Man's Moral Nature, published in Here is the dedication to Whitman in Man's Moral Nature: I dedicate this book to the man who inspired it — to the man who of all men past and present that I have known has the most exalted moral nature — to Walt Whitman Bucke, , p.
Like Whitman, Bucke saw the sense of life directly linked to the value of consciousness, and this applied to the people around him. Great friendships and ease relationship with other great personalities represented milestones in his life. There was dialogue with different thinkers of his time and Bucke also became a reference to several others who succeeded him. Currently, this chapter is published separately in book form Ouspensky, Evelyn Underhill , a prominent English writer and pacifist of the first half of the twentieth century, develops the concept of mysticism.
Aldous Huxley , a famous English writer and also a philosopher, in his classic work The Perennial Philosophy , p. In addition to those cited above, Sri Aurobindo , Ramana Maharshi , Edgar Mitchell , and several other influential personalities referred to Bucke's contribution.
Despite being recognized as important references for mystical and academic knowledge, none of these personalities gave a sign of having taken a more detailed examination and profiteering of the methodology and fundamentals proposed by Bucke. In the same context, he well places the problem of the phenomenon of intuition, but still leaves several gaps with research problems.
Another relevant aspect that occupies most of the structure of the book is the comparative analysis of forty-nine people who may have had the same or similar experience as the author.
Among these, Bucke classifies fourteen personalities who have experienced cosmoconsciousness with a higher degree of certainty. Another thirty-five candidates underwent the same type of analysis with a lower level of certainty, or at intermediate stages in the development of the phenomenon. Bucke's analysis is exquisite and allows for a brilliant approach to see the manifestation of the phenomenon as it is. The result of applying this method constitutes a relevant contribution to phenomenology.
Somehow, those people were evaluated by the traits of personality and by the characteristics of the manifestation of the phenomenon, according to rudiments of what can now be called conscientiometry Vieira, Bucke creates a new cosmovision on the breadth of the experience of cosmoconsciousness and human development hypotheses.
In his book, he utilized resources from the field of logic and the scientific perspective in his time. That is not a movement toward mysticism, but rather the reverse. His challenge was to speculate in the field of a science of consciousness that did not yet exist. Even today, this task is still arduous. Bucke anticipated several analyzes beyond his time, advancing on 1 theories of the mental images, 2 cognitive hypotheses on the perception of colors, 3 the evolution of the language and its relations with consciousness, 4 hypothesis to investigate the evolution of levels of consciousness, 5 theory about the emergence and classification of categories of levels of consciousness, and especially 6 the very notions of consciousness, self-consciousness and expansion of consciousness, among other exercises of scientific logic.
Bucke gathered the most advanced information available in the nineteenth century. He did the best he could and what was within his reach. According to this analysis, it would not be correct to consider him a mystical man.
The phenomenon is not mystical or scientific in and of itself.
The people who conclude by qualifying Bucke in the category of mysticism did not probably lean on the analysis of his work. If the reader does not make a detailed reading of the book Cosmic Consciousness and only be impressed by the original account and by the ideas it deems incomprehensible, it will also tend to a mystical pre-consideration.
Bucke's hypotheses are not easy to understand. Not reading them or not understanding them can result in mediocre opinion formation. Attenuation of this situation is merely the fact that at that time and even today there is the apriorism of classifying any mention of psychic and exceptional phenomena in the category of mysticism.
Again, the phenomenon is not mystical in and of itself.
Mysticism, too, is not the simple absence of a scientific attitude, for in mediocrity it may be a term employed by purely 7 unthinking prejudice.
Authentic mystical experience is phenomenologically rich but lacks research methodology and refutation. Bucke's life example, combining depth of sentiments and methodological systematization, demonstrates that the scientific attitude does not necessarily exclude deep involvement with the phenomenon, which the person of a mystical approach could claim exclusivity.
On the other hand, the scientific and methodological attitude tends to deconstruct the conservative perspective of the notions acquired in experience. Science, by its very nature, can be destructive of old and stagnant concepts in consciousness itself.
II — Cosmoconsciousness: Terminology and Phenomenology In this part of the text, we would like to ask the reader's permission to start from the base launched by Bucke and then present this author's current hypotheses in the study of cosmoconsciousness.
Edward Carpenter , philosopher, English socialist poet, and friend of Bucke, used the term 'cosmic consciousness' for the first time Rechnitzer, Carpenter studied religion in the East and made the derivation of the Eastern term 'universal consciousness'. Bucke borrowed the term from his friend and consolidated its use. Currently, the terms "cosmic consciousness" and "cosmoconsciousness" are synonymous.
The term 'expansion of consciousness' may also be synonymous with 'cosmic consciousness' when referring to maximal expansion. However, the term 'expansion of consciousness' is best used to refer to the expansive intermediate phenomena, or the gradual expansion of consciousness that precedes, or characterizes, the developmental process of the parapsychic person before reaching cosmoconsciousness.
According to Vieira , p. In his book Projectiology , Waldo Vieira defines cosmoconsciousness using several elements taken from Bucke's account cited at the beginning of this chapter.
William James also points out the same features that have become a reference in characterizing the occurrence of the maximal manifestation of this phenomenon in the book The Varieties of Religious Experience , p.
The consistency of the account, the categories of characteristics observed by Bucke, and the extensive research on the manifestation of cosmoconsciousness in other personalities have left strong references in their time and to the leading researchers to date. The hypothesis about the mental images functioning percepts, recepts, and concepts is one of Bucke's most interesting contributions and maybe the least valued up to now. Mental images are component elements of the mental body of consciousness mentalsoma , functioning as vehicles that operate essential processes and are carriers of evolving and determining content for the expansion of consciousness, such as meanings, sentiments, moral traits, and the cognition in general.
If the cosmoconsciousness phenomenon manifests the perception of the reality of the Cosmos, what is included in it? The perceiver, who perceives. It is an integral consciousness that has multiple attributes, that interacts through energies, which is holosomatic, multidimensional and multiexistential.
The perception of the broad reality includes the perception of oneself and the world around. The Cosmos that is perceived.
In the present ignorance, superficial speculation about the content of the Cosmos may include the existence of countless consciousnesses at various evolutionary levels from proto-consciousnesses to the prime consciousness, the equivalent of what can be called god , the existential times of these consciousnesses present, past and future , the different existential dimensions materials, energies, multiple universes , and other unknown elements.
The phenomenon of the expansion of consciousness seems to be the primary effect that characterizes the intermediate phenomena before the major phenomenon of cosmoconsciousness. In theory, cosmoconsciousness corresponds to the maximal expansion of consciousness effect. The expansions of consciousness can be classified into at least three categories depending on the multiple degrees of magnitude and complexity between the stage of self-consciousness and cosmoconsciousness: 1.
The partial expansion of consciousness can be characterized starting from the minimal amplification of one or more consciential attributes, in varying degrees, temporarily or permanently.
After that, the amplifying effect of the cosmic paraperception proper to the initial stages of cosmoconsciousness may or not occur. This category represents a common manifestation between people when one exerts one or more attributes in a way above the normal, but still, it is possible to occur significant deviations in relation to the reality and to moral values. The integral expansion of consciousness can be characterized starting from the minimal expansion of a set of consciential attributes, in varying degrees, temporarily or permanently, generating an integrated or significant effect of amplification of the cosmic paraperception proper to the intermediate stages before cosmoconsciousness.
This expansive integral effect can be perceived at lower levels to higher levels of manifestation. This category represents a rare manifestation that requires higher levels of consciential energy, elevation of moral quality, and cosmovisiological sense of reality.
The maximal expansion of consciousness can be characterized by the maximal magnification of a set of consciential attributes, temporarily or permanently, generating a significant effect of amplifying the cosmic paraperception, constituting the attainment of the cosmoconsciousness phenomenon.
This category represents a very rare manifestation, which demands the highest levels of consciential energy and the maximum convergence between the perception of reality and the intellect, resulting in the sense of oneness with the Cosmos. In the present hypothesis, the expansion of consciousness, in itself, is not a phenomenon of the consciential attribute category. The category of consciential attribute refers to essential functions or characteristics directly related to elements of concrete existence in the physiology of consciousness.
For example, perception related to the existence of percepts and parapercepts , memory related to the existence of engrams , imagination related to the existence of imagos , and so on. The notion of effect on the paraphysiology of consciousness refers to the indirect consequence of the exercise of one or more consciential attributes.
For example, lucidity, expansion of consciousness, sleep, among others. The qualitative factor of the consciousness expansion effect seems to be produced by the qualitative correspondence between 1 the contents perceived by the consciousness and 2 the contents produced by the consciousness.
For example, in the hypothesis raised here, when my thoughts and sentiments about myself correspond to the reality of what I am, at this moment the consciousness expansion effect would advance one or more units. Likewise, when my base of intellective thought, sentiments, and energies approaches the reality around me very closely, the tendency is to take a perceptive and synergistic potentiation characterizing the consciousness expansion effect. In Cosmic Consciousness, beginning with Part II, Bucke explains how animals developed the senses of hearing and seeing.
Further development culminated in the ability to experience and enjoy music. Bucke states that, initially, only a small number of humans were able to see colors and experience music. But eventually these new abilities spread throughout the human race until only a very small number of people were unable to experience colors and music.
In Part III, Bucke hypothesizes that the next stage of human development, which he calls "cosmic consciousness," is slowly beginning to appear and will eventually spread throughout all of humanity. Bucke later testified that he was "lifted to and set upon a higher plane of existence" because of his friendship with Whitman.
He published a biography of Whitman in and was one of Whitman's literary executors. He died a few hours later without regaining consciousness. He was deeply mourned by a large circle of friends, who loved him for his sturdy honesty, his warm heart, his intellectual force, but most of all for his noble qualities as a man.
His claim to Cosmic Consciousness. His sudden change from materialism. The difficulty of clear enunciation. His unfailing belief in the divinity of his revelations. How they compare with experiences of others. The frequent reception of the Light. The blessing of Cosmic Consciousness. Emerson 's religious nature.
His familiarity with Oriental philosophy; his remarkable discrimination; the peculiar penetrating quality of his intellect.
His never failing assurance of unity with the Divine. His belief in a spiritual life. Did Emerson predict a Millenium? His writings as they reflect light upon his attainment of Cosmic Consciousness. Incidents in his life previous to his illumination. The remarkable and radical change made by his experience. To what was due Tolstoi's great struggle and suffering? Why the great philosopher sought to die in a hut.
His idea not one of penance. The signal change in his life after illumination. What he says of this. His amazing power of magnetic attraction.
His feminine refinement in dress. His power of inspiration gave him his place in French literature. The dominant motive of all his writings. His unshakable conviction of immortality. His power to function on both planes of consciousness. The lesson to be drawn from Seraphita. Balzac's evident intention, and why veiled.